Alan Turing needs to be considered no matter what. Here is his 1950 essay COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE. Turing was the first persone to cosider if machines can think. The general respond to his text was no. Even though the text pretty much illustrates the machines ability to think.
"I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?" This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms "machine" and "think." The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous, If the meaning of the words "machine" and "think" are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the answer to the question, "Can machines think?" is to be sought in a statistical survey such as a Gallup poll. But this is absurd. Instead of attempting such a definition I shall replace the question by another, which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words."
Here is a link to a PDF of his essay: COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE (1950) By A. M. Turing
The photo shows Turing running in December 1946, coming second in a race on National Physical Laboratory Sports Day(UK).